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How do I make poison at home. How can we make homemade poisons by using non-poisonous things. How do you make deadly poisons. The 100 deadly poisons that can be cooked up in a kitchen. 100 Poisons Used To Kill People. How do you make deadly poisons out of common household objects.

The 100 deadly poisons that can be cooked up in a kitchen. 100 Poisons Used To Kill People. How do you make deadly poisons out of common household objects. How do I make poison at home. How can we make homemade poisons by using non-poisonous things. How do you make deadly poisons. 

Poison is definitely among fiction’s greatest weapons. Hercule Poirot and Sherlock Holmes seem to have developed the audience’s taste for untraceable, fast-acting poisons. However, murder mystery is one thing, but when the story becomes reality, you have got yourself a real killer! Here is a list of the most famous poisons used to kill people throughout history.

Hemlock




Hemlock or Conium is a highly toxic flowering plant indigenous to Europe and South Africa. It was a popular one with the ancient Greeks, who used it to kill off their prisoners. For an adult, the ingestion of 100mg of conium or about 8 leaves of the plant is fatal – death comes in the form of paralysis, your mind is wide awake, but your body doesn’t respond and eventually the respiratory system shuts down. Probably the most famous hemlock poisoning is that of Greek philosopher, Socrates. Condemned to death for impiety in 399 BC, he was given a very concentrated infusion of hemlock.

Aconite




Aconite comes from the plant monkshood. Also known as wolfsbane, aconite leaves only one post-mortem sign, that of asphyxia, as it causes arrhythmic heart function which leads to suffocation. Poisoning can occur even after touching the leaves of the plant without wearing gloves as it is very rapidly and easily absorbed. Because of its untraceable nature it has been a popular one with the “get away with murder” crowd. Reportedly, it has a particularly famous casualty. The emperor Claudius is said to have been poisoned by his wife, Agrippina, using aconite in a plate of mushrooms.

Belladonna




This was a favorite of the ladies! The name of this plant is derived from Italian and means beautiful woman. That’s because it was used in the middle-ages for cosmetic purposes – diluted eye-drops dilated the pupils, making the women more seductive (or so they thought). Also, if gently rubbed on their checks, it would create a reddish color, what today would be known as blush! This plant seems innocent enough, right? Well, actually, if ingested, a single leaf is lethal and that’s why it was used to make poison-tipped arrows. The berries of this plant are the most dangerous – consumption of ten of the attractive-looking berries is fatal.

Dimethylmercury




This one is a slow killer – a man-made slow killer! But this is exactly what makes it all the more dangerous. Absorption of doses as low as 0.1ml have proven fatal; however, symptoms of poisoning start showing after months of initial exposure, which is definitely too late for any kind of treatment. In 1996, a chemistry professor at Dartmouth College, New Hampshire, spilled a drop or two of the poison on her gloved hand – dimethylmercury went through the latex glove, symptoms appeared four months later and ten months later, she died.

Tetrodotoxin




This substance is found in two marine creatures – the blue-ringed octopus and the puffer fish. However, the octopus is the most dangerous, because it purposely injects its venom, killing it in minutes. It carries enough venom to kill 26 human adults within minutes and the bites are often painless, so many victims realize they have been bitten only when paralysis sets in. On the other hand, the puffer fish is only lethal if you want to eat it, but if it is well prepared, meaning the venom is taken out, the only thing that’s left is the adrenaline of eating something which could kill you.

Polonium




Polonium is a radioactive poison, a slow killer with no cure. One gram of vaporised polonium can kill about 1.5 million people in just a couple of months. The most famous case of polonium poisoning is that of ex-Russian spy Alexander Litvinenko. Polonium was found in his tea cup – a dose 200 times higher than the median lethal dose in case of ingestion. He died in three weeks.

Mercury




There are three forms of mercury which are extremely dangerous. Elemental mercury is the one you can find in glass thermometers, it’s not harmful if touched, but lethal if inhaled. Inorganic mercury is used to make batteries, and is deadly only when ingested. And finally, organic mercury is found in fish, such as tuna and swordfish (consumption should be limited to 170g per week), but can be potentially deadly over long periods of time. A famous death caused by mercury is that of Amadeus Mozart, who was given mercury pills to treat his syphilis.

Cyanide



Now here’s one right out of an Agatha Christie novel. Cyanide seems to be extremely popular (spies use cyanide pills to kill themselves when caught) and there are plenty of reasons for this. Firstly, it is found in a great variety of substances like almonds, apple seeds, apricot kernel, tobacco smoke, insecticides, pesticides and the list goes on. Murder in this case can be blamed on a household accident, such as ingestion of pesticide – a fatal dose of cyanide for humans is 1.5 mg per kilogram of body weight. Secondly, it’s a rapid killer: depending on the dose, death occurs within 1 to 15 minutes. Also, in its gaseous form – hydrogen cyanide – it was the agent used by Nazi Germany for mass murders in gas chambers during the Holocaust.

Botulinum Toxin



If you’re watching Sherlock Holmes, then you’ll know about this one. The Botulinum toxin causes Botulism, a fatal condition if not treated immediately. It involves muscle paralysis, eventually leading to the paralysis of the respiratory system and, consequently, death. The bacteria enter the body through open wounds or by ingesting contaminated food. By the way, botulinum toxin is the same stuff used for Botox injections!

Arsenic



Arsenic has been called “The King of Poisons”, for its discreetness and potency – it was virtually undetectable, so it was very often used either as a murder weapon or as a mystery story element. But that’s until the Marsh test came and signalled the presence of this poison in water, food and the like. However, this king of poisons has taken many famous lives: Napoleon Bonaparte, George the 3rd of England and Simon Bolivar to name a few. On another note, arsenic, like belladonna, was used by the Victorians for cosmetic reasons. A couple of drops of the stuff made a woman’s complexion white and pale. Just perfect!

Experts from Porton Down, the chemical and biological defence establishment, gave evidence from behind screens during Kamel Bourgass's trial about the five poisons described in his recipes.

Ricin, the deadliest of the toxins derived from plant material, was used in London in 1978 to murder Georgi Markov, the Bulgarian dissident. He took seven days to die after an assassin fired a poison pellet into him, using an umbrella, outside Aldwych Tube station.



Ricin is derived from castor oil beans, some of which were found at the Wood Green flat. Ingested or inhaled as a fine dust, a dose of as little as 0.3 mg can be fatal. It affects the body's immune system so the victim suffers from infection that cannot be controlled and dies within days. The poison, which is tasteless and odourless, can be put in food and drink.

Bourgass's recipe involved putting the beans in a solvent to break down the oils and fats, filtering the mixture and allowing it to form a powder. It was perfectly viable, said an expert who tested it on laboratory mice.

So, too, was the recipe for potato poison which, although less toxic than ricin, is still deadly if ingested in sufficient quantity. The poison, made from potatoes, can be put in food and drink. It induces coma, convulsions and a shutdown of the lungs.

Nicotine poison can be ingested in food or drink or injected and causes death from lethal shock to the body, shutting down the brain, leading to coma and death. It, too, was a credible recipe.



Bourgass had three recipes for cyanide, including one used by the Nazis on concentration camp victims. All were viable. Used as a gas it has an immediate effect, causing respiratory paralysis and almost immediate death, particularly in confined spaces such as a room.

Cyanide can be extracted from a number of plants such as apples, plums, peaches and apricots through leaves and seeds. A process involving grinding the seeds and heating them followed by several refinements will produce cyanide. A Porton Down expert said he was unable to acquire the necessary 10,000 wild apricot kernels.

All the recipes could be made using basic equipment found at Wood Green, including a grinder, mortar and pestle, a bottle of acetone, castor beans and apple seeds, a funnel, blotting paper, thermometers and scales, the court heard.

Nigel Sweeney, QC, prosecuting, said the deadliest of all the five toxins, rotten meat poison, was, fortunately, the most difficult to make. It is produced from rotten meat and excrement and produces a botulinum toxin - "the most toxic substance known to man".

Botulinum toxin can be delivered in food or drink. Research has showed one gram can kill 80,000 people.

Explosives experts also confirmed to the court that instructions for bombs found at the flat were blueprints for viable devices.

These envelopes were intercepted off-site--they never got anywhere near their targets--but as a precaution, Capitol Police have shut down mail service until they can figure out what's going on.

In the meantime, let's talk about ricin!

How poisonous is it?
Oh, man. Very. It's dangerous in just about any way it gets into your system, though ingesting (eating) it is about the least dangerous way. Injecting or inhaling requires about a thousand times less ricin to kill a human than ingesting, and that's a very small amount indeed. An average adult needs only 1.78mg of ricin injected or inhaled to die; that's about the size of a few grains of table salt--which ricin resembles visually.



Wikimedia Commons

Castor Seeds

The seeds of the castor plant, from which castor oil (and ricin) are extracted.

How does it work?
Ricin, a toxic protein, infects cells, blocking their ability to synthesize their own protein. Without cells making protein, key functions in the body shut down; even in survivors, permanent organ damage is often the result of ricin poisoning. It's a highly unpleasant way to be poisoned: within six hours, according to the Center for Disease Control, victims who have ingested ricin will feel gastrointestinal effects like severe vomiting and diarrhea, which can lead to serious dehydration. Then the ricin infects the cells of the vital gastrointestinal organs as they pass through the body, leading to the failure of the kidneys, liver, and pancreas.

Inhalation of ricin has a different effect, since the ricin proteins aren't interacting with the same parts of the body. Instead of gastrointestinal problems, you'll develop a vicious, bloody cough, your lungs will fill with fluid, and eventually you'll lose your ability to breathe, causing death. Injection, too, is different, depending on where you've been injected, but will generally result in vomiting and flu-like symptoms, swelling around the place of injection, and eventually organ failure as your circulatory system passes the protein around the body. Death from inhalation or injection usually occurs about three to five miserable, agonizing days after contact.

Interestingly, there aren't any immediate symptoms, and indeed there can be a significant delay before symptoms show themselves, up to a day or two.

Exposure on the skin is generally not fatal, though it may cause a reaction that can range from irritation to blistering.

That sounds...horrible. Is there an antidote, at least?
 The CDC's website states bluntly, "There is no antidote for ricin toxicity." There are some steps you can take if you get to a hospital immediately; for ingestion, a stomach pump can sometimes prevent the ricin from reaching the rest of the gastrointestinal system at its full force. But...that's about it, really.


How does it stack up against other poisons?
Well, that depends on what your aim is. Ricin is much easier to produce than other popular biological weapons like botulinum, sarin, and anthrax, but it is not as potent as any of those, which limits its effectiveness as a weapon. It also is not very long-lived; the protein can age and become inactive fairly quickly compared to, say, anthrax, which can remain dangerous for decades. There were experiments back around World War I attempting to make wide-scale ricin weapons, packaging it into bombs and coating bullets in it, but these proved not particularly effective and also violate the Hague Convention's agreements on war crimes, so the US discarded ricin.

It's much more effective, weapon-wise, as a close-contact, small-target weapon--by injecting, as with Georgi Markov, or by putting small particles into an aerosol spray and blasting a target. It's also not contagious, which limits its effectiveness as a tool of biological warfare. But it's considered highly dangerous partly because it's still outrageously toxic and partly because it takes no great skill to produce.

So it's not hard to make?
Well...no. Like, not at all. It's made from the byproduct of the castor oil manufacturing process. You take the "mash" of the castor oil seeds, which contain around 5-10 percent ricin, and perform a process called chromatography. Chromatography is a blanket term for a set of techniques used to separate mixtures, usually by dissolving in liquid or gas. The US government has done its best to eradicate recipes for ricin from the internet, sort of; a patent was filed back in 1962 for ricin extraction, and the Patent Office took it off the publicly available server in 2004 for safety reasons. That said, the recipe is super easy to find; here at the PopSci offices, I'm blocked from listening to Rdio on my work computer, but

The techniques involved are undergraduate-level chemistry, creating a slurry with the castor bean mash and filtering with water and then a few easily-found substances like hydrochloric acid.

It comes from castor beans?
Ricin is a highly toxic protein that's extracted from the seed of the castor plant, often called a "castor bean" or "castor oil bean," despite not technically being a bean. The castor plant is extremely common; it's used as an ornamental plant throughout the western world, prized for its ability to grow basically anywhere as well as its pretty, spiky leaves and weird spiny fruits. It's also an important crop; the seeds are full of oil, and castor oil is used for lots of legitimate purposes. It's a common laxative, for one thing, and since it's more resistant to high temperatures than other kinds of vegetable oils, it's a nice alternative to petroleum oil in engines.

Wait, but you can eat it? So how is this a poison?
Ah, yes. Castor oil is perfectly safe, according to the FDA and your grandma, but ricin is not castor oil. But the oil itself does not contain ricin; the ricin protein is left behind in the "castor bean mash" after the oil is extracted from the seed. Poisoning from eating the seed itself is rare.

Have there been cases of ricin poisoning in the past?
You mean, beyond the several times it's been featured as a major plot point inBreaking Bad? Sure! The most famous is probably the assassination of Georgi Markov in 1978. Markov was a Bulgarian novelist, playwright, journalist, and dissident, and was murdered by the Bulgarian secret service, with assistance from the KGB, by ricin injection. He was crossing a bridge when he was jabbed in the leg with an umbrella, which delivered a ricin pellet into his bloodstream. He died three days later of ricin poisoning.

"Fallen Angel" was never found, but the letters were intercepted and did not cause any injury.




How dangerous are these envelopes filled with ricin?
The envelope strategy has more to do with potential ease of getting the poison close to targets than its strength as a delivery system. If you're targeting the President of the United States, it's easier and more anonymous to mail a letter than to try to get close to him with an umbrella modified for ricin-stabbing. But it's not a great way to poison someone with ricin. Assuming the letter actually got into the target's hands, of the three ways ricin can get into a person's system (inhalation, injection, ingestion), only one--inhalation--is really possible, and it's not that likely.

Inhalation as a weapon is best accomplished through a mist, ideally delivered through an aerosol. But that's not possible in a letter full of powder. It's possible that small granules of ricin could be released into the air and inhaled when handling the letter, but it is not an effective way to poison someone.

Greeks and Romans: Hemlock and Aconite



It's best to start with the classics. When people didn't know where else to turn, they turned to hemlock. It's most famous for being the poison that Socrates drank in the spirit of good citizenship. It would not have been a particularly pleasant death. Accounts of his death say it was peaceful, with feeling going out of his legs first, and the eventual numbness killing him. Actually, hemlock acts as a paralytic that keeps the mind awake. It takes out the muscles and then shuts down the respiratory system, so death comes from waking asphyxiation.

Aconite comes from the plant monkshood. It, reportedly, also has a famous casualty. The emperor Claudius was said to have been poisoned by his wife by aconite in a plate of mushrooms. The wife part of that scenario seems to be an anomaly since aconite was known as "The Mother-In-Law's Poison." It first caused vomiting and diarrhea, and then caused arrhythmic heart function until the person died.

Hemlock and aconite were a great favorite of the Greeks and the Romans. They didn't just poison each other with the direct version of hemlock, but tried to do each other in with the meat of larks, which were said to eat so much hemlock that their flesh was poisonous. Why did they favor these plants so much? Well, it was also given by doctors to ease swelling and calm seizures or muscle spasms. Aconite was a treatment for head colds by doctors - right up until the 20th century. As meticulous as poisoners seem, they often use whatever comes to hand when they need to kill someone. Since they could get hold of both of these poisons and have a seemingly innocent reason for using them, they were ideal. They fell out of favor often because they weren't nearby. Over time, the effects of the poison became known. Occasional throw-back poisoners tried to use them, but as one unlucky Victorian poisoner who had gotten his entire education from a classics textbook found out, medical science moves forward. His "undetectable aconite," was well-known as a poison. Being a poisoner is very much about staying ahead of the curve.

Medieval Peasants: Belladonna and Mandrake

Belladonna gets its name because it's said that peasant women used to rub it in their eyes. It's a paralytic, and would take out the muscles used to constrict their pupils. When they put it on their cheeks it would cause their faces to flush with what looked like blush. They believed that this gave them a dreamy look that was sexy to men. Probably it just tipped the men off that these women knew how to get their hands on some belladonna. Some say that this was the actual poison used on Claudius by his wife. Others say that Macbeth poisoned an entire invading army with it. One of its most famous uses was as a hallucinogenic that witches used on themselves to give them the feeling of flying. When too much was used - and too much can mean a single leaf - people get nauseous, hallucinate, then develop a rapid pulse that trickles down to nothing.



Mandrake poisonings occurred everywhere, but were most common where the European mandrake grew, in Spain and Portugal. This type of mandrake flowers and bears edible fruit. The roots, however, are not to be eaten. Nor do they need to be in order to be poisonous. Today extracts from the root are used to take off warts - with the warning not to expose healthy skin to the compound. Early poisoners didn't issue that warning. Mandrake will take out the liver and kidneys, so wasn't necessarily as fast as others, but it was a great way to dispose of someone without needing to cook for them.

Mandrake and belladonna were, again, commonly used by certain people during a certain time period because they had them close by and no one would blame them for being in possession of them. As the population moved to the city, it became less common to harvest mandrake or inconspicuously maintain a ten foot high belladonna bush. Besides, as industrialization came on, well, there were new opportunities.

(For those of you wondering about digitalis - foxglove - it is surprisingly hard to give someone a lethal dose of it. Modern poisonings are generally only serious when the victim is a young child. It's also time-consuming to distill, which makes a poisoning with it hard to pull off when a family shares a kitchen.)

Ladies and Gentlemen of Industry: Strychnine, Cyanide, and Arsenic

Cyanide is everywhere. It's in the foods we eat. It's in the chemicals around us. Although substances that contained cyanide were used well back in history, it wasn't until 1782, when a Swedish chemist named Scheele distilled hydrogen cyanide, that things really got swinging. It was first used in distinctive blue paints, but once it was discovered that cyanide killed people quickly - and generally painlessly - that it was used by the military to poison people on both sides. Spies famously used cyanide capsules to kill themselves quickly if caught. It brings on unconsciousness first, followed by convulsions, the inability to absorb oxygen, and death. This was the poison that killed (or didn't kill!) Rasputin. Its quickness and effectiveness at first worked it its favor, but soon people caught on. Lizzie Borden might have been convicted if it had been widely known that she had been asking at chemist after chemist for "prussic acid" - another name for hydrogen cyanide - just days before her parents were axed to death. The testimony of the chemists was thrown out of court on a technicality and she was found not guilty. The reason she couldn't get it was, even in an era in which people could buy heroin over-the-counter, it had been involved in too many poisonings. Sadly, it is still used sometimes by the kind of people who don't care if everyone knows their victim has been poisoned.



Strychnine took some time to catch on the west. It was known as a poison (and a possible medicine) in China and India for centuries, but only made its way to Europe in the late 1700s, when people brought over the Strychnos nux-vomicatree. It took even longer for the toxic compound in the seeds to be isolated and distilled. Once it did, it became a poison for birds in the country and rats in the city. That meant had the major quality that every poisoner looks for - it was within reach. This was not a way to poison someone you like. It causes uncontrollable muscle spasms, frothing at the mouth, reflexes that are dramatically greater than the stimuli that produce them, and eventual death from asphyxiation when the muscles are too tensed and erratic to allow for breathing. The first case in England was of a Doctor William Palmer, who killed his gambling associates with strychnine, even though, as a doctor in 1856, he should have been able to get his hands on better stuff. Thomas Neil Cream was next. He was convicted for poisoning a number of prostitutes, and said he had killed more as Jack the Ripper just before he was hanged. Agatha Christie made this poison famous in her first murder mystery, The Mysterious Affair at Styles. Overall, though, it was so quick and so dramatic that it was hard for a murderer to get away with the crime. Now companies that make animal poison often put compounds that dye or flavor food in strychnine so that it can't be consumed.

Arsenic is, in the end, the be-all and end-all of historic poisons. Without a doubt it had the longest run. Technically, it should be back there among the Romans, because it was used even in antiquity. It was called the King of Poisons, and was the favorite of the Borgias. But it wasn't until the Victorian era when it got its queen. Or rather, queens. Though it was said to have Napoleon and a good chunk of the Italian clergy, this eventually became the lady's poison. Women used arsenic, which constricts the veins, to do the opposite of what medieval women did with belladonna. They wanted a white-as-snow, composed face. Girls learned about the properties and dangers of arsenic in school from their friends, and they were very used to carrying it around and dissolving it in liquids to bathe their faces in. It was tasteless, colorless, and odorless. A few grains of the stuff could kill a man. And a few grains did kill many, many men. (Women, to be fair, weren't the only ones to do this. It's been said that an overly harsh arctic exploration leader, Charles Francis Hall, was poisoned by his own men using arsenic.)



The most infamous case of arsenic poisoning came in 1857, and involved one Madeleine Smith. She had taken a lover, who had turned out to be a blackmailing fortune-hunter. When he threatened to go to her father and show him the explicit love-letters that Madeleine had written, Madeleine made nice and invited him to have some cocoa with her on her windowsill after her father was in bed. The lover fell ill, but was good enough to return the next night, when he got the next dose of cocoa. They found over seventy grains of arsenic in his stomach, and a letter from Madeleine asking him to meet her in his pocket. Madeleine was declared innocent - through a wild series of lucky chances for her - but people checked their drinks around her so much that she changed her name and went to America. The Smith trial, and the fact that medical science had advanced to the point where it was possible to count the grains of arsenic in a corpse's stomach, marked the end of a long era. Arsenic was most on-hand in Victorian era, but it had endured because of its invisibility before and after it was used. The effects of arsenic - sweating, confusion, cramping muscles, and stomach pain - could be written off as extreme food poisoning. Not anymore. And because the news of the trial reached across countries and continents, no aspiring poisoner could fail to note how very obvious arsenic poisonings had become. The king was dead.

First warning: If you attempt to do this at all, we have nothing to do with your action. This article is for educational purposes only. We cannot be held responsible for any of your stupid ass actions.


General Tip: If you do not crush or grind the apple seeds, the hard protective outer shell of the seed will protect the stuff which produces what we want here. Again, only use dry seed!



Hemlock
Hemlock or Conium is a highly toxic flowering plant indigenous to Europe and South Africa. It was a popular one with the ancient Greeks, who used it to kill off their prisoners. For an adult, the ingestion of 100mg of conium or about 8 leaves of the plant is fatal – death comes in the form of paralysis, your mind is wide awake, but your body doesn't respond and eventually the respiratory system shuts down. Probably the most famous hemlock poisoning is that of Greek philosopher, Socrates. Condemned to death for impiety in 399 BC, he was given a very concentrated infusion of hemlock.



Aconite
Aconite comes from the plant monkshood. Also known as wolfsbane, aconite leaves only one post-mortem sign, that of asphyxia, as it causes arrhythmic heart function which leads to suffocation. Poisoning can occur even after touching the leaves of the plant without wearing gloves as it is very rapidly and easily absorbed. Because of its untraceable nature it has been a popular one with the “get away with murder” crowd. Reportedly, it has a particularly famous casualty. The emperor Claudius is said to have been poisoned by his wife, Agrippina, using aconite in a plate of mushrooms.
Belladonna
This was a favorite of the ladies! The name of this plant is derived from Italian and means beautiful woman. That's because it was used in the middle-ages for cosmetic purposes – diluted eye-drops dilated the pupils, making the women more seductive (or so they thought). Also, if gently rubbed on their checks, it would create a reddish color, what today would be known as blush! This plant seems innocent enough, right? Well, actually, if ingested, a single leaf is lethal and that's why it was used to make poison-tipped arrows. The berries of this plant are the most dangerous – consumption of ten of the attractive-looking berries is fatal.




Dimethylmercury
This one is a slow killer – a man-made slow killer! But this is exactly what makes it all the more dangerous. Absorption of doses as low as 0.1ml have proven fatal; however, symptoms of poisoning start showing after months of initial exposure, which is definitely too late for any kind of treatment. In 1996, a chemistry professor at Dartmouth College, New Hampshire, spilled a drop or two of the poison on her gloved hand – dimethylmercury went through the latex glove, symptoms appeared four months later and ten months later, she died.

Tetrodotoxin
This substance is found in two marine creatures – the blue-ringed octopus and the puffer fish. However, the octopus is the most dangerous, because it purposely injects its venom, killing it in minutes. It carries enough venom to kill 26 human adults within minutes and the bites are often painless, so many victims realize they have been bitten only when paralysis sets in. On the other hand, the puffer fish is only lethal if you want to eat it, but if it is well prepared, meaning the venom is taken out, the only thing that's left is the adrenaline of eating something which could kill you.

Polonium
Polonium is a radioactive poison, a slow killer with no cure. One gram of vaporised polonium can kill about 1.5 million people in just a couple of months. The most famous case of polonium poisoning is that of ex-Russian spy Alexander Litvinenko. Polonium was found in his tea cup – a dose 200 times higher than the median lethal dose in case of ingestion. He died in three weeks.





Mercury
There are three forms of mercury which are extremely dangerous. Elemental mercury is the one you can find in glass thermometers, it's not harmful if touched, but lethal if inhaled. Inorganic mercury is used to make batteries, and is deadly only when ingested. And finally, organic mercury is found in fish, such as tuna and swordfish (consumption should be limited to 170g per week), but can be potentially deadly over long periods of time. A famous death caused by mercury is that of Amadeus Mozart, who was given mercury pills to treat his syphilis.

Cyanide
Now here's one right out of an Agatha Christie novel. Cyanide seems to be extremely popular (spies use cyanide pills to kill themselves when caught) and there are plenty of reasons for this. Firstly, it is found in a great variety of substances like almonds, apple seeds, apricot kernel, tobacco smoke, insecticides, pesticides and the list goes on. Murder in this case can be blamed on a household accident, such as ingestion of pesticide – a fatal dose of cyanide for humans is 1.5 mg per kilogram of body weight. Secondly, it's a rapid killer: depending on the dose, death occurs within 1 to 15 minutes. Also, in its gaseous form – hydrogen cyanide – it was the agent used by Nazi Germany for mass murders in gas chambers during the Holocaust.




Botulinum Toxin
If you're watching Sherlock Holmes, then you'll know about this one. The Botulinum toxin causes Botulism, a fatal condition if not treated immediately. It involves muscle paralysis, eventually leading to the paralysis of the respiratory system and, consequently, death. The bacteria enter the body through open wounds or by ingesting contaminated food. By the way, botulinum toxin is the same stuff used for Botox injections!

Arsenic
Arsenic has been called “The King of Poisons”, for its discreetness and potency – it was virtually undetectable, so it was very often used either as a murder weapon or as a mystery story element. But that's until the Marsh test came and signalled the presence of this poison in water, food and the like. However, this king of poisons has taken many famous lives: Napoleon Bonaparte, George the 3rd of England and Simon Bolivar to name a few. On another note, arsenic, like belladonna, was used by the Victorians for cosmetic reasons. A couple of drops of the stuff made a woman's complexion white and pale. Just perfect!




How to make a poison out of apple seeds

Yes, it is true that apple seeds are toxic to animals and humans. Yes, it is true that you can make a cyanide poison from apple seeds. There are a number of ways to do it, however, some are obviously going to be better, stronger poisons than others.

Amygdalin is a glycoside and common in a variety of seeds and nuts. Amygdalin is found in bitter almonds and apple seeds. Amygdalin will decompose over time into benzaldehyde and prussic acid.This highly toxic new compound is also known as Hydrogen Cyanide .

Hydrogen Cyanide should not be ingested by animals or humans in high quantities. Small quantities will be detoxified naturally, however, large quantities can make the subject violently ill and/or prove to be fatal. In sublethal doses, Hydrogen Cyanide can cause severe brain damage.
How to make the poison

The average apple seed has been estimated to contain 0.6 mg of Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) per gram of seed.

The estimated lethal dose of HCN is 50 mg. This means we would need between 80 and 100 grams of seed, depending upon the subjects body mass index. If you do not use dry seed you will end up calculating the weight of less seed than you need.

Next, you will want to add the seeds a blender, coffee grinder, burr mill, etc.. Blend until the seeds are more of a watery mixture. Leave this mixture in the blender (or similar equipment).




In order to avoid losing all of the HCN to evaporation, you will want a way to absorb this solution into something which can then be sealed air tight for later. NaOH is what you need. NaOH is also known as Lye, or caustic soda and is a caustic metallic base. Particularly, you will want a 50% saturated solution of the stuff (50% saturated solution of Sodium Hydroxide).

To make your 50% saturated solution of Sodium Hydroxide you will need 111g of NaOH dissolved into 100 mL of water (distilled preferred). This will be a thick solution.

Pour your 50% saturated solution of Sodium Hydroxide into your blender or whatever equipment you chose to crush or chop the seeds. Lightly reblend/crush the thick mixture for a moment or two. Tightly seal the mixture in an air tight container.
How to make poison at home for human. The deadly poisons that can be cooked up in a kitchen. Make Poison Using Household Chemicals

Experts from Porton Down, the chemical and biological defence establishment, gave evidence from behind screens during Kamel Bourgass's trial about the five poisons described in his recipes.

Ricin, the deadliest of the toxins derived from plant material, was used in London in 1978 to murder Georgi Markov, the Bulgarian dissident. He took seven days to die after an assassin fired a poison pellet into him, using an umbrella, outside Aldwych Tube station.





Ricin is derived from castor oil beans, some of which were found at the Wood Green flat. Ingested or inhaled as a fine dust, a dose of as little as 0.3 mg can be fatal. It affects the body's immune system so the victim suffers from infection that cannot be controlled and dies within days. The poison, which is tasteless and odourless, can be put in food and drink.

Bourgass's recipe involved putting the beans in a solvent to break down the oils and fats, filtering the mixture and allowing it to form a powder. It was perfectly viable, said an expert who tested it on laboratory mice.

So, too, was the recipe for potato poison which, although less toxic than ricin, is still deadly if ingested in sufficient quantity. The poison, made from potatoes, can be put in food and drink. It induces coma, convulsions and a shutdown of the lungs.

Nicotine poison can be ingested in food or drink or injected and causes death from lethal shock to the body, shutting down the brain, leading to coma and death. It, too, was a credible recipe.

Bourgass had three recipes for cyanide, including one used by the Nazis on concentration camp victims. All were viable. Used as a gas it has an immediate effect, causing respiratory paralysis and almost immediate death, particularly in confined spaces such as a room. Cyanide can be extracted from a number of plants such as apples, plums, peaches and apricots through leaves and seeds. A process involving grinding the seeds and heating them followed by several refinements will produce cyanide. A Porton Down expert said he was unable to acquire the necessary 10,000 wild apricot kernels.

All the recipes could be made using basic equipment found at Wood Green, including a grinder, mortar and pestle, a bottle of acetone, castor beans and apple seeds, a funnel, blotting paper, thermometers and scales, the court heard.




Nigel Sweeney, QC, prosecuting, said the deadliest of all the five toxins, rotten meat poison, was, fortunately, the most difficult to make. It is produced from rotten meat and excrement and produces a botulinum toxin - "the most toxic substance known to man".

Botulinum toxin can be delivered in food or drink. Research has showed one gram can kill 80,000 people.

Explosives experts also confirmed to the court that instructions for bombs found at the flat were blueprints for viable devices.

Youll have to find a handfull of those mushrooms that grow in your back yard. Or you can find them at local parks.Then allow those to dry out. Powder them after they are extremly dry. Then take whatever medications you can find in your home cabinet.

You can go to your local drug store and find things such as Asprin, tylonol, Anti-diarreal pills. It must be a pill because you will need to powder them as well. If it is a gel cap, just open it up and dump them out. You must then mix these with the mushroom powder. Because of its bad taste you will have to disolve it in water or a liqiud.




This recipe will work wonders on an annoying dog in the neighborhood. You can also ad something like dimetap or robitusun or any liquid drug and pour little amounts on your powder then letting it dry. After that is acomplished you can get the dog to eat it if you sprinkle a little dog biscut flavoring….

In the meantime, let's talk about ricin!

How poisonous is it?
Oh, man. Very . It's dangerous in just about any way it gets into your system, though ingesting (eating) it is about the least dangerous way. Injecting or inhaling requires about a thousand times less ricin to kill a human than ingesting, and that's a very small amount indeed. An average adult needs only 1.78mg of ricin injected or inhaled to die; that's about the size of a few grains of table salt--which ricin resembles visually.




How does it work?
Ricin, a toxic protein, infects cells, blocking their ability to synthesize their own protein. Without cells making protein, key functions in the body shut down;even in survivors, permanent organ damage is often the result of ricin poisoning. It's a highly unpleasant way to be poisoned: within six hours, according to the Center for Disease Control, victims who have ingested ricin will feel gastrointestinal effects like severe vomiting and diarrhea, which can lead to serious dehydration. Then the ricin infects the cells of the vital gastrointestinal organs as they pass through the body, leading to the failure of the kidneys, liver, and pancreas.

Inhalation of ricin has a different effect, since the ricin proteins aren't interacting with the same parts of the body. Instead of gastrointestinal problems, you'll develop a vicious, bloody cough, your lungs will fill with fluid, and eventually you'll lose your ability to breathe, causing death. Injection, too, is different, depending on where you've been injected, but will generally result in vomiting and flu-like symptoms, swelling around the place of injection, and eventually organ failure as your circulatory system passes the protein around the body. Death from inhalation or injection usually occurs about three to five miserable, agonizing days after contact.

Interestingly, there aren't any immediate symptoms, and indeed there can be a significant delay before symptoms show themselves, up to a day or two.




Exposure on the skin is generally not fatal, though it may cause a reaction that can range from irritation to blistering.

That sounds...horrible. Is there an antidote, at least?
Haha. No. The US and UK governments have been working on an antidote for decades-- here's a nice article describing the progression of one such antidote--but there isn't one available to the public. The CDC's website states bluntly, "There is no antidote for ricin toxicity." There are some steps you can take if you get to a hospital immediately; for ingestion, a stomach pump can sometimes prevent the ricin from reaching the rest of the gastrointestinal system at its full force. But...that's about it, really.


How does it stack up against other poisons?
Well, that depends on what your aim is. Ricin is much easier to produce than other popular biological weapons like botulinum, sarin, and anthrax, but it is not as potent as any of those, which limits its effectiveness as a weapon. It also is not very long-lived; the protein can age and become inactive fairly quickly compared to, say, anthrax, which can remain dangerous for decades.There were experiments back around World War I attempting to make wide-scale ricin weapons, packaging it into bombs and coating bullets in it, but these proved not particularly effective and also violate the Hague Convention's agreements on war crimes, so the US discarded ricin.

It's much more effective, weapon-wise, as a close-contact, small-target weapon--by injecting, as with Georgi Markov, or by putting small particles into an aerosol spray and blasting a target. It's also not contagious, which limits its effectiveness as a tool of biological warfare. But it's considered highly dangerous partly because it's still outrageously toxic and partly because it takes no great skill to produce.

So it's not hard to make?
Well...no. Like, not at all. It's made from the byproduct of the castor oil manufacturing process. You take the "mash" of the castor oil seeds, which contain around 5-10 percent ricin, and perform a process called chromatography. Chromatography is a blanket term for a set of techniques used to separate mixtures, usually by dissolving in liquid or gas. The US government has done its best to eradicate recipes for ricin from the internet, sort of; a patent was filed back in 1962 for ricin extraction, and the Patent Office took it off the publicly available server in 2004 for safety reasons. That said, the recipe is super easy to find; here at the PopSci offices, I'm blocked from listening to Rdio on my work computer, but I found a recipe to make an outrageously deadly poison in about a minute.


The techniques involved are undergraduate-level chemistry, creating a slurry with the castor bean mash and filtering with water and then a few easily-found substances like hydrochloric acid.

It comes from castor beans?
Ricin is a highly toxic protein that's extracted from the seed of the castor plant, often called a "castor bean" or "castor oil bean," despite not technically being a bean. The castor plant is extremely common; it's used as an ornamental plant throughout the western world, prized for its ability to grow basically anywhere as well as its pretty, spiky leaves and weird spiny fruits. It's also an important crop; the seeds are full of oil, and castor oil is used for lots of legitimate purposes. It's a common laxative, for one thing, and since it's more resistant to high temperatures than other kinds of vegetable oils, it's a nice alternative to petroleum oil in engines.

Wait, but you can eat it? So how is this a poison?
Ah, yes. Castor oil is perfectly safe, according to the FDA and your grandma, but ricin is not castor oil. Castor seeds are still poisonous; this study says that a lethal dose of castor seeds for adults is about four to eight seeds. But the oil itself does not contain ricin; the ricin protein is left behind in the "castor bean mash" after the oil is extracted from the seed. Poisoning from eating the seed itself is rare. Have there been cases of ricin poisoning in the past?

You mean, beyond the several times it's been featured as a major plot point inBreaking Bad ? Sure! The most famous is probably the assassination of Georgi Markov in 1978. Markov was a Bulgarian novelist, playwright, journalist, and dissident, and was murdered by the Bulgarian secret service, with assistance from the KGB, by ricin injection. He was crossing a bridge when he was jabbed in the leg with an umbrella, which delivered a ricin pellet into his bloodstream.He died three days later of ricin poisoning.




There are plenty of incidents of people arrested for attempting (or, more often, succeeding) to make ricin; it's a pretty easy poison to make. In fact, there was even another ricin-in-the-envelope attempt made back in 2003--a person identifying as "Fallen Angel" sent letters filled with ricin to the White House, apparently as a result of some new trucking regulations (seriously)."Fallen Angel" was never found, but the letters were intercepted and did not cause any injury.

How dangerous are these envelopes filled with ricin?
The envelope strategy has more to do with potential ease of getting the poison close to targets than its strength as a delivery system. If you're targeting the President of the United States, it's easier and more anonymous to mail a letter than to try to get close to him with an umbrella modified for ricin-stabbing. But it's not a great way to poison someone with ricin. Assuming the letter actually got into the target's hands, of the three ways ricin can get into a person's system (inhalation, injection, ingestion), only one--inhalation--is really possible, and it's not that likely.

Inhalation as a weapon is best accomplished through a mist, ideally delivered through an aerosol. But that's not possible in a letter full of powder. It's possible that small granules of ricin could be released into the air and inhaled when handling the letter, but it is not an effective way to poison someone.